Prevalence of Halitosis among Patients Who Smoke


Srijan Sunar* and Jayant Kumar

Halitosis is the common term used to define an unpleasant or an offensive odor in expired air, regardless of whether it originates from oral or non-oral sources. Other terms include bad breath, foul breath, breath odor, foul smells, foetor ex ore, breath malodor, oral malodor or offensive breath. Halitosis can be caused by several intra-oral and extra-oral factors. Oral sources of halitosis mentioned in the literature are tongue coating, periodontal disease, extensive carious lesions with exposed tooth pulps, pericoronitis, mucosal ulcerations and diseases, impacted food and debris, unclean dentures, decreased salivary flow rate, and habitual mouth breathing, the latter especially in children. Halitosis is the general term used to describe any disagreeable odour in expired air, regardless of whether the odorous substances originate from oral or non-oral sources. Other names used are fetor ex ore, fetor oris, bad or foul breath, breath malodour, and oral malodour. Halitosis refers to unpleasant breath from the mouth and it is divided in three categories: genuine halitosis, pseudo halitosis and halitophobia. There are several causes of bad breath including those resulting from a systemic or nasopharyngeal pathology or condition, the main source of most halitosis is the oral cavity. Non-oral sources of breath odour are generally related to systemic problems and/or medications including conditions such as diabetes, liver and kidney disorders, and pulmonary disease. Some medications, especially those that reduce salivary flow such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, narcotics, decongestants, antihistamines, and antihypertensive drugs contribute towards non-oral sources of breath odor. The main cause of halitosis is due to lifestyle related habits like smoking, drinking etc. Smoking is one of the main causes for halitosis. Temporary and transitory factors such as diet containing garlic, onion and pepper. This is a retrospective clinical study carried out at Sabetha Dental College. The data were taken from June 2019 to February 2021. A total of 16 samples were collected. The aim of the study is to analyze the prevalence of halitosis among patients who smoke. Within the limitations of the study it can be concluded that there is a high prevalence of Halitosis among patients who smoke.