Abstract

Vascular Complications of Diabetes- Retinal and Renal Changes in Diabetic Foot

Author(s): Prajeesh Thiru Chaithanya1 , Sreejayan Meethala Parambil2 , Rajan Puthiadath3

BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus is a major medical problem throughout the world, especially in India. It causes an array of systemic complications, which has considerable impact on both the patient and society because it typically affects individuals in their productive years. Diabetic foot is one of the major complications with both micro and macro vascular components to it. In this background we did a prospective study to establish its relationship with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, if any. METHODS Among the diabetic foot patients admitted in surgical wards we graded the lesion based on Wagner`s classification. These patients underwent retinal examination to grade retinopathy. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine and renal ultrasound were done to grade Nephropathy. The result was later analysed to look for any relations between the variables. RESULTS The present study showed a significant relationship of diabetic foot with duration of diabetes. 46.7% of patients were in the stage of micro albuminuria and 36.7% in macro albuminuria. 35% patients had moderate non proliferative retinopathy and 30% had severe non proliferative retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS This study did not show strong association between diabetic foot, DR and DN in patients with T2DM but majority of the subjects had all 3 diseases in different grades. There was strong association with disease duration, which calls for multipronged approach to the problem.