Syam Sunder Rao Uttarakar1, Prathima Gujjaru2, D. Seshasayana Reddy3
BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases are one of the commonest endocrine disorders, some manifest in the form of a thyroid nodule. The ultrasonography is a non-invasive sensitive diagnostic in assessing thyroid nodule size and number. In this connection, we studied the spectrum of ultrasound findings of thyroid nodules in patients and correlated with clinical records.
200 thyroid nodules in women who underwent sonography were included. The indications for thyroid sonography were a nonspecific abnormality in 17% and visible and palpable abnormality in remaining 83%. All patients were examined with high frequency, 7.5-10.0 MHz probe. Ultrasound examination of a thyroid nodule in these patients was carried out by high frequency 7.5-10.0 MHz probe. It includes diameter, echogenicity (Hyper, Hypo, Iso and An echo), composition (Cystic, Solid, Mixed), microcalcifications (Presence and Absence), Borders (Irregular and Regular) and Halo (Presence and Absence). Ultrasound of nodule margins suggestive of malignancy guidelines was adapted from Lew et al. Guidelines.
Benign and malignant lesions on thyroid ultrasonography were 90% and 10% respectively, whereas they were 91.5% and 8.5% histopathologically. Sensitivity is 91%, specificity is 8.5%, positive predictive value is 50%, and negative predictive value is 47%.
Even though thyroid sonography is one of the accepted radiological methods of diagnosing thyroid disease; in our study, results concluded that the ultrasound findings are being equivocal in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of a thyroid nodule.