To Study the Risk Factors for Atrial Fibrillation and the Relation Between Cardiac Symptoms with Left Atrial Area on Echocardiography

Author(s): Sangram S. Mangudkar1 , Vijayashree S. Gokhale2 , Sachin K. Shivnitwar3 , Dineshsingh D. Patil4

BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Size of the left atrium (LA) is an important factor for atrial fibrillation which can land subjects into various complications. We wanted to study the echocardiography findings (size of LA) among AF cases with various underlying aetiology. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted for a duration of 2 years to measure left atrial size by echocardiography in patients of atrial fibrillation in various diseases. A proforma was designed to collect the desired information from the patients. The preformed structured proforma consisted of recording of investigations and was used as data collection tool. All efforts were made to determine the aetiology of atrial fibrillation. RESULTS A total of 50 cases of AF were studied. Major risk factors found were RHD (44%) Hypertension (28%) and IHD (24%). LA volume on echo was determined and it was found that the majority of symptoms (palpitation, breathlessness, chest pain) was associated with dilated LA. CONCLUSIONS Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and to find out the underlying aetiology will help in reducing the same. The size of left atrium is found to have association with various cardiac symptoms and also an important role in atrial fibrillation particularly in patients of rheumatic heart disease which predisposes the patients to stroke and other cardio-embolic events. Hence, timely management will help in reducing the morbidity and mortality significantly.