Author(s): Rajiv Kumar Srivastava1, Naushaba Dulare Sayyed2, Kshitija Chandrashekhar Rane3, Dattatraya Shankar Joshi4
BACKGROUND This review covers therapeutic implication of genetic risk variant responsible for coronary artery disease by utilising the high-density single-nucleotide microarrays to screen the entire human genome. The sequence of the human genome provides the blueprint for life. Approximately, 99.5% of the human genome Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) sequence is identical among humans with 0.5% of the genome sequence (15 million bps) accounting for all individual differences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The new technology of the computerised chip array of millions of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) markers makes it possible to study and detect genetic predisposition to common polygenic disorders such as Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). The sample sizes required for these studies are massive and large; worldwide consortiums such as Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-Analysis (CARDIoGRAM) study have been formed to accommodate this requirement. After the identification of 9p21 progress to detect genetic predisposition has been remarkable.
RESULTS There are currently a total of 50 genetic risk variants predisposing to CAD of genome-wide significance with confirmation in independent populations. Rare variants (Minor Allele Frequency, MAF <5%) will require direct sequencing to detect genetic predisposition.
We can develop new biomarkers for detecting early CAD as well as unique targets for novel therapy. The challenge for the future will be to identify the molecular mechanisms mediating the risk of those genetic risk variants that act through nonconventional risk factors. The ultimate objective for the future is the sequencing and functional analysis of the causative polymorphisms for its therapeutic implications.