B. Purushottam Rao1, G. Raja Lakshmi Bai2, G. Raja Sekhar Kennedy3, K. V. V. Satyanarayana4
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a chronic disease that has a prolonged prediabetic phase. Indians develop diabetes 10 years earlier than other ethnic groups (mean age 42.5 years). 1 Diet, environment, genetics play a major role in development of diabetes. Complications of diabetes are directly proportional to the duration of diabetes and dysglycemia. Prediabetes is a condition is which glucose levels are high to be considered as normal, eventhough they do not meet the criteria for diabetes. 10%-50% of prediabetics may develop diabetes in 3-10 year period. Components of prediabetes include either an isolated impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance or both. Microvascular complications can begin is the prediabetic stage itself. Present study has been done to know the prevalence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy is prediabetic stage and correlation of both in prediabetics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary care Hospital from June 2013 to May 2014. Screening was done and patients recruited into the study after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. American Diabetes Association Criteria2 was used for screening and results were correlated using various parameters to know the prevalence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy in prediabetes. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences(spss) version 20.0
RESULTS: In this study, 500 patients were screened for diabetes. 100 patients were included in the study. Prevalence of prediabetes was seen in 20% of patients screened. 19% of prediabetics had microalbuminuria and 8% had retinopathy. Association of both conditions was seen is 7% of patients.
CONCLUSION: Diabetic Microvascular complications like retinopathy and nephropathy in the form of microalbuminuria starts even in the prediabetic stage in a significant number of patients. Screening high risk individuals for diabetes and screening of prediabetics for microvascular complications is needed for prevention of overt diabetes, diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy by early intervention.