Neela Mannangi1, Sreenivas N2, Shubha Jayaram3, Sangamesh Kashina Kunti4, Manjula R5,Mamatha Samalad6, Arti Ganiger7, Mahantesh Bhutal8
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone is a central regulator of body haemodynamic, thermoregulation and metabolism. The effect of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism is well known, whereas the effect on electrolytes and minerals has not been well established and also the underlying mechanisms not well understood. Thyroid hormones regulate the activity of sodium potassium pumps in most of the tissues. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in women suggests that estrogen might be involved in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. With this background the present study was undertaken to assess the alterations in the levels of serum electrolytes in hyperthyroid, hypothyroid & euthyroid female patients.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted in female patients who attended medicine outpatient Department of S. N. Medical College & HSK Hospital, Bagalkot. Thyroid hormones were estimated by chemiluminiscence method. Electrolyte levels (Na+ , k+ & Cl- ) were measured by ion selective electrode method. Serum levels of free T3 T4 and TSH were obtained. Patients with history of intake of thyroid drugs, hypertensive, diabetes mellitus, obesity and all other causes for electrolyte abnormalities were excluded from the study
STATISTICS: All the values are expressed in mean±SD. Unpaired ‘t’ test was applied. Pearson’s correlation was done to see the correlation between serum electrolytes and thyroid hormones using SPSS (version 16.0).
RESULTS: In the present study mean age group of patients were between 20-60yrs. There were 90 female patients total in number. Out of which 30 patients were with hypothyroidism, another 30 were with hyperthyroidism and remaining 30 were with euthyroidism. Mean serum levels for thyroid function parameters and electrolytes are given in below table no.2 and 3.
DISCUSSION: Hypothyroidism is a very common condition and seen more in women than in men. The higher prevalence of thyroid disease in women suggests that estrogen might be involved in the pathophysiology of thyroid dysfunction. In our study the serum sodium levels were markedly decreased as compared to healthy controls. According to Saruta T et al Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) and Plasma Aldosterone (PA) may be suppressed in hypothyroidism probably due to dysfunction of juxtaglomerular cells and glomerulosa cells respectively. The suppression of PRA and PA in patients with hypothyroidism is related to exaggerated sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that significant decreased Na+ and increased K+ levels were seen in female hypothyroid patients compared to controls. Hence monitoring of serum levels of these electrolytes will be helpful during the management of hypothyroid patient