Author(s): Karthik Pichika Lakshmanan1, Pradip Bhaumik2, Parimal Sarkar3, Tapan Majumder4
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in India. Hepatitis B can be prevented by hepatitis B vaccine, which is the first anticancer vaccine, because it can prevent a form of liver cancer. The protective antibodies induced by vaccination wane gradually over period of time.
The aim of the study is to-
1. Estimate serum levels of anti-HBs in individuals vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine.
2. Immunisation status of hepatitis B vaccination in individuals.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A serological study was carried out from March 2015 to the end of September 2016 aimed at estimating the level of HBs-antibody. Total of 330 individuals from healthcare workers, staff and children who have received full course of hepatitis B vaccine were selected for study. In a cross-sectional study, anti-HBs antibody was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method.
Three hundred and thirty individuals were enrolled in the study, out of which, 136 were men and 194 were women. Majority were in the age group 20 to 40 years. Anti-HBs antibody titre was more than 100 IU/L in 74% individuals. Titre was between 10 IU/L-100 IU/L in 16% individuals. Anti-HBs titre was less than 10 IU/L in 10% individuals. There was a significant decline in the levels of antibody overtime post vaccination. Antibody titre was low in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Low antibody titre was noted in smokers.
In this study, majority had desirable immune response to the HBV vaccine. Diabetes mellitus, long duration post vaccination and positive smoking history have attributed to low anti-HBs titre in subjects who had inadequate levels in our study. As immunological memory persists for long time even in the absence of significant titre of anti-HBs, booster dose vaccination is routinely not advocated for general population. But, healthcare professionals are advised to receive booster dose vaccination at 5 years if anti-HBs value is less than 10 IU/L. Study recommends periodic monitoring of anti-HBs assay.