Study of Clinical Profile of Hyponatremia in Elderly Hospitalised Subjects from Bagalkot, Karnataka

Author(s): Gopal Bajaj1, Shashidhar Khanapure2, Udit Aggarwal3, Saurabh Suhas Patil4

Hyponatremia is one of the most commonly encountered electrolyte disturbances
in the hospital setting especially in elderly patients. The plasma sodium level of
less than 135 mEq/l is called as hyponatremia, but it may vary to a small extent
in different laboratories. It is associated with increased morbidity and
mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess clinical profile of
hyponatremia in elderly hospitalized patients, the aetiologic factors involved,
as well as treatment and outcome of the patients using a prospective case
series. The normal serum sodium concentration is 135 - 145 mEq/L.
This hospital-based case series study was conducted at HSK Hospital, Bagalkot
from 01 January 2018 to 30 June 2019. All admitted patients whose serum sodium
was less than 135 mEq/L at any point during the admission were included in the
241 patients were included in study, out of which 200 (83 %) were
symptomatic. 128 (53.1 %) and 113 (46.9 %) were males and females
respectively. Recovery was seen in 224 (92.9 %) patients whereas mortality was
seen in 17 (7.1 %) patients. In this study, mortality was seen in 8 (3.31 %)
patients with severe hyponatremia and 9 (3.73 %) patients with moderate
hyponatremia, no mortality was seen in mild hyponatremia group.
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality found in elderly hospitalized
critically ill patients. Altered consciousness and thought disturbance were the most
common neurological symptoms. Hyponatremia was seen in significantly a greater
number of patients on diuretic therapy. Severe hyponatremia was associated with
considerably high morbidity and mortality compared to patients having mild to
moderate hyponatremia.