Role of Macronutrients in the Prevention of Pre-Eclampsia - A Cross Sectional Study at a Tertiary Care Centre in North India

Author(s): Vandana Gangadharan1 , Gaurie Srivastava2 , George Koshy3 , Varghese Koshy4

BACKGROUND Role for macronutrient supplementation in preventing pre-eclampsia is now backed with evidence which is evolving rapidly. We wanted to study and compare serum calcium and serum magnesium levels in pre-eclamptic women and women with normal pregnancy. METHODS 30 women with normal pregnancy and 30 women with preeclampsia were included in the study. Their serum calcium and magnesium levels were estimated using colorimetry. RESULTS Serum calcium levels in normotensive patients was found to be 9.3 ± 0.95 mg / dL and in preeclamptic patients, it was 8.3 ± 0.85 mg / dL. Serum magnesium levels were found to be 1.94 ± 0.24 mg / dL and 1.57 ± 0.125 mg / dL in normal and pre-eclamptic women respectively. These values were affected by age, parity, BMI, socio-economic status, and nutrition before and during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS Low values of maternal serum calcium along with magnesium are related to preeclampsia which might have an association in this disease. We also realised that evaluation of base-line levels of serum calcium and magnesium are necessary during early pregnancy. Constant monitoring of blood pressure is also essential. Adequate intake of macronutrients is essential for maintaining health of both mother and child. Hence, measurable and realistic efforts must be made along these lines. Nutrition is a key concern in pregnant women and is pivotal in ensuring health in this vulnerable group.