Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy - A Hospital Based Study

Author(s): Bukke Sidda Naik1 , Badugu Rama Lakshmi2 , Banavath Bharathi3 , Gopavaram Pushpa Vani4 , Rayapu Rama Priya5 , P. Bhavani6 , Yekula Lokesh Kumar

BACKGROUND In India, with the epidemic increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetic retinopathy is fast becoming an important cause of visual disability. Visual disability from diabetes is a significant public health problem. However, this morbidity is largely preventable and treatable. If managed with timely intervention, the quality of life can be preserved. Duration of diabetes, type of diabetes, control of blood sugar, associated systemic conditions, age and sex are found to be associated with retinopathy and its progression. We wanted to study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Sri Ram Narayan Ruia Government General Hospital attached to Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupathi. A total of 500 cases of diabetes fulfilling the inclusion criteria were examined as per protocol and results were analysed. RESULTS Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in our study was 35.2% (176 patients out of 500). Prevalence of sight threatening diabetic retinopathy was 12% (vision <6/60). CONCLUSIONS In the present study, the prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy was 35.2%. There was a strong association between the duration of diabetes and retinopathy changes. The severity of diabetes was not related to duration of diabetes. The risk factors in the present study are hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidaemia. Majority of the patients had renal involvement. As retinopathy changes were directly related to the diabetic duration of the patient, regular mass screening programmes must be conducted to identify the retinopathy changes in the early stages. This helps in educating the patient about the ill effects and consequences of progression of Diabetic Retinopathy. All diabetic patients attending the hospital must undergo screening for retinopathy. This can be achieved by conducting awareness programmes to the public.