Bhuvaneshwari1, Souri S. Kondaveti2

Malaria is currently is a major health problem, which has been attributed to wide spread resistance of the anopheles mosquito to the economical insecticides and increasing prevalence of drug resistance to plasmodium falciparum. Newer drugs are needed as there is a continual threat of emergence of resistance to both artemisins and the partner medicines. Newer artemisinin compounds like Artemisone, Artemisnic acid, Sodium artelinate, Arteflene, Synthetic peroxides like arterolane which is a synthetic trioxolane cognener of artemisins, OZ439 a second generation synthetic peroxide are under studies. Newer artemisinin combinations include Arterolane(150mg) + Piperaquine (750mg), DHA (120mg) + Piperaquine(960mg) (1:8), Artesunate + Pyronardine (1:3), Artesunate + Chlorproguanil + Dapsone, Artemisinin (125mg) + Napthoquine (50mg) single dose and Artesunate + Ferroquine.Newer drugs under development including Transmission blocking compounds like Bulaquine, Etaquine, Tafenoquine, which are primaquine congeners, Spiroindalone, Trioxaquine DU 1302, Epoxamicin, Quinolone 3 Di aryl ether. Newer drugs targeting blood & liver stages which include Ferroquine, Albitiazolium – (SAR – 97276). Older drugs with new use in malaria like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, protease inhibitors, Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors, methotrexate, Sevuparin sodium, auranofin, are under preclinical studies which also target blood and liver stages. Antibiotics like Fosmidomycin and Azithromycin in combination with Artesunate, Chloroquine, Clindamycin are also undergoing trials for treatment of malaria. Vaccines - RTS, S– the most effective malarial vaccine tested to date