Sunil Kumar K. P1, Nivee Ramesh2, S. Muneeruddin Ahmed3
INTRODUCTION: Otosclerosis is one of the commonest non infective causes of acquired deafness in adults’. ‘Otosclerosis’ literally means hardening of the ear. It is a primary and exclusive disease of otic capsule of human temporal bone. Otosclerosis is characterised by alternate phases of bone resorption and formation. If the location of bony changes produces evident clinical manifestations term “Clinical Otosclerosis” is used. If bony changes are not translated into clinical manifestations, the term used is “histological Otosclerosis”. Antonio Valsalva in 1735 gave first description of ankylosis of stapes to margins of oval window. Von Troltsch in 1881 coined the term ‘Otosclerosis’. Politzer in 1893 first described Otosclerosis as a primary disease of otic capsule. Although the clinical course of the disease is well documented, its aetiology remains unclear; thus, multiple theories are available. But none of them has established a definite cause. Otosclerosis usually manifests as a progressive conductive or mixed hearing loss occurring clinically to varying degrees in 0.5% - 1% of the general population. The clinical diagnosis of Otosclerosis, as clarified by Bezold in 1908, requires a careful history, physical examination, tuning fork evaluation and audiometric testing. Radiographic examinations can be done as adjuncts when needed. Therapeutic options for Otosclerosis include medical, surgical and use of hearing aids, alone or in combination. Stapes surgery is an effective treatment for hearing loss and tinnitus of Otosclerosis and stapedectomy is the current treatment of choice for conductive component of Otosclerosis. The first stapes mobilization was employed by Kessel in 1878. The procedure of extracting the stapes for Otosclerosis was first performed by Jack of Boston in 1892 but was beset with obvious difficulties because he lacked proper magnification and antibiotic coverage. In 1956 Dr. John Shea revived the stapedectomy operation for Otosclerosis and replaced the stapes bone with a polyethylene tube prosthesis and vein graft. Small fenestra stapedectomy is a more precise method of creating a hole in footplate rather than total footplate removal. It gives less post-operative vertigo and better high frequency hearing compared to total footplate removal. The present study is a longitudinal clinical study on Otosclerosis with emphasis on clinical and audiological features, per operative findings, outcome and complications of stapedectomy. The objective is to study the demographic and clinical features of Otosclerosis in this part of Kerala; to analyze the results of audiometry and operative notes of Otosclerosis; to describe the outcome and incidence of complications of small fenestra stapedectomy in Otosclerosis.