Author(s): Sunil Vitthalrao Jagtap1, Neerav Saini2, Rohit Shivaji Kadam3, Swati S. Jagtap4
Oral cancer is one of the commonest cancer in the world. It is known that oral carcinoma begins with multiple cumulative epigenetic and genetic changes that caused by various carcinogens which ultimately lead to clinical and microscopic visible changes called invasive neoplasm. Oral cancer has a very poor prognosis because it is not detected when it is a small lesion and in early stage. Oral examination and histopathology of lesion plays important role in detecting oral cancers.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To study clinical presentation, prevalence, histopathological types and grades of various malignant oral lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study is retrospective and prospective analytical type. Study period was 5 years from May 2010 to April 2015. Detailed clinical data, relevant investigations and complete histopathological examination was done and data analysed.
This study includes a total of 135 consecutive cases of malignant oral lesions during study period. The common associated risk factor observed was habituated to tobacco chewing (91.11%). Males were commonly affected 98/135 cases (72.59%) than females 37/135 (27.41%) with ratio M: F is 2.6:1. The maximum number of patients were from 40-49 years of age group. Site wise distribution of malignant lesion was common in buccal mucosa (45.12%) followed by tongue (23.71%), gingiva (16.34%), lip (7.35%), etc. On histopathological examination of total 135 cases, conventional squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 122 cases (90.36%), verrucous carcinoma in 8 (5.94%), followed by malignant melanoma (0.74%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (0.74%), polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (0.74%).
Oral cancer is a major health problem in India. Proper clinical examination and histopathological examination are important tools to diagnose premalignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity. The early detection and treatment plays important role in prognosis of disease. Patient’s awareness of associated risk with tobacco and its effects are equally important.