Geoffrey Joju1, Anthrayose Kakkanatt C. V2, Monsy Mathai3, Sapna Mohan4
A descriptive, observational and non-interventional hospital-based study on diabetes-related chronic renal failure patients undergoing regular haemodialysis was conducted to evaluate the occurrences of ocular manifestations and to know whether ocular screening was useful.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A cross-sectional study was conducted. Hundred patients who were diabetic and undergoing treatment for chronic renal failure were taken. Detailed history was collected and clinical examination was done. All ocular findings were noted. Vision was noted with Snellen's chart. Anterior segment was assessed with slit lamp. Intraocular Pressure (IOP) measured using applanation tonometer. Retinal pathologies were noted with 90 D lens under slit lamp and indirect ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scan were used in mature cataract cases.
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) was noted in 95% cases, and of this, 64% of diabetic retinopathy were detected for the first time and were advised to undergo treatment. Lid oedema (58%), dry eye (48%) and corneal conjunctival calcification (12%) were also detected. More severe grades of DR were detected with increasing severity of renal disease. Seventeen percent patients showed Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) changes.
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) patients are at increased risk of visual loss since this condition causes worsening of diabetic retinopathy changes. Regular ocular examinations are required in these patients for timely interventions to reduce risk of visual loss and thereby to improve patient's quality of life.