Parul Vadgama1, Sabarinath Ravichandar2, Mahendra Zaverbhai Patel3
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder, which is caused by recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep and is an underdiagnosed condition due to low level of suspicion. Patients with OSA suffer from poor sleep quality, increased daytime sleepiness and depression.
The aim of the study is to diagnose obstructive sleep apnoea and its correlation with various medical comorbidities like hypertension, obesity, diabetes, road traffic accident and cardiovascular events among patients of South Gujarat population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Setting- Level 1 Sleep Laboratory, Department of Pulmonary Medicine.
Study Design- Cross-sectional study. Selection of Study Participants- 40 patients screened for symptoms of OSA like snoring, witnessed apnoeas and excessive daytime sleepiness with Epworth sleep score (>10) was taken for overnight sleep study.
Data Entry and Analysis- Data entry was done in Microsoft Excel Sheet, 2010. Graphs were presented in MS Excel, 2010.
Obesity was important risk factor. Higher and middle economic classes were affected more. Hypertension was most common comorbid condition associated followed by diabetes and heart attack. Most common symptom of OSA is snoring followed by excessive daytime sleepiness. Epworth sleeping score has high specificity for screening compared to STOP-Bang. Most common arrhythmia noted was atrial fibrillation. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy was associated with all OSA patient with hypertension. As the Body Mass Index increases, Apnoea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) also increases. As the neck circumference increases, AHI also increases.
To conclude in country like India, sleep disordered breathing is still an iceberg disease where patients gets treated for its secondary effects like hypertension and diabetes without proper control in spite of being in two to three drugs, but where the primary cause is OSA.