Author(s): P. Vijaya Sheela1, R. Padmaja2, Vijayalakshmi3
BACKGROUND: India today is the diabetic capital of the world. A venous blood sugar level more than 140 mg/dl is suggestive of Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) and more than 90% of these people are managed by meal plan alone. GDM tends to occur in older women with higher body mass index, higher parity, and other associated risk factor
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the hospital prevalence of GDM, maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GDM compared with non-diabetic pregnancies managed at a tertiary care unit during the study period.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Study was conducted at KING GEORGE HOSPITAL, Visakhapatnam, over a period of 2 years from October 2011 to October 2013. A total of 64 subjects of GDM were recruited and compared with 100 controls selected randomly that matched that matched for age, parity, BMI, who delivered in the hospital during the study period .
RESULTS: Prevalence of GDM increases as the parity of the woman increases. Incidence of GDM increases as the age of the pregnant woman increases. Obesity and pre pregnancy weight act as high risk factors for the development of GDM. Patients with known risk factors are more likely to have GDM than those with risk factors. There is increased incidence of operative delivery among GDM cases compare to controls. There is increased prevalence of macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia in GDM cases compared to controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes of pregnancy in women with GDM in this study showed significantly raised incidence of hypertensive disorders, LGA Neonates, macrosomia and NICU admissions for more than 24hrs compared to non-diabetic mothers who delivered in the hospital.