Author(s): Rajesh Mithalavalaram Raghavan1, Shameej Kinakool Vayalipath2, Sasi Malayan Parambil3
Thyroid disease is most common endocrine disorder and is different from other endocrine diseases because of its visible swelling and ease of diagnosis. In India, significant burden of thyroid diseases exists with an estimation of around 42 million cases. The thyroid status and autoimmune disease status of adult Indian population is largely unknown.
The main aim of this study was to generate valuable epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (HT) in northern population of Kerala, to study the different histopathological type of malignancy in FNAC (fine-needle aspiration cytology) proven HT, to assess thyroid autoimmunity, goitrogens along with environmental factors in the development of thyroiditis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted in Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, between January 2015 to June 2016. It included cross-sectional analysis of cytomorphology of fine-needle aspiration cytology material of 200 patients presenting with thyroid nodule in the Department of General Surgery.
The commonest age group affected was 40-50 yrs. The female patients (92%) outnumbered the male patients (8%). The cytomorphological analysis of 200 patients revealed 25.5% cases have HT and a few patients with nodular colloid goiter were found to have associated HT, which makes overall prevalence of 28%. Incidence of coexistent papillary carcinoma with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is 3.9%.
Higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in females maybe linked with both genetic and environmental factors. There is co-existence of HT and papillary carcinoma; therefore, HT patients need to be carefully followed up. The high TSH values was exclusively found in patients with FNAC proven HT (63%), which is in concordance with existing literature. HT is the most common cause of hypothyroidism.