Author(s): Sana Nora Ahmad1, Amita Gupta2, Smita Dudhale3
Hospital-acquired infections, also known as healthcare-associated infections (HAI), increases morbidity and mortality. A study was done in a medical college hospitalto reveal trends over time and help to identify the risk factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A study was conducted in Gauri Devi institute of medical sciences and hospital, from August 2020 to August 2021. Data were prospectively recorded from all in patients at the Medical College except those treated in the pediatric, psychosomatic, and psychiatric services. The data were collected systematically by chart review and by interviews with the medical staff. The classification of infections were according to the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). patients were recorded for underlying diseases, invasive procedures, the use of antibiotics, medical devices (the application of specific medical techniques such as drainage, vascular catheters, etc.), and detected pathogens.
Out of 1050 patients studied, 118 (11.2%) had a total of 125 nosocomial infections, while 112 (10.7%) had 122 community-acquired infections. The most common NI were surgical site infections (28.5%), infections of the gastrointestinal tract (26.1%) and respiratory tract (19%), urinary tract infections (16%), and primary sepsis (4%). The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida spp., Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The other risk factors included age, previous hospital stay, trauma, stay on an intensive care unit, and artificial ventilation.
In this study, nosocomial infection were a common complication in all hospital whether it is in a developed or developing. In our hospital , surgical site infections were the most common type of nosocomial infection because of the large number of patients that undergoes surgical procedures in our hospital. More investigation will be needed to assess the benefit of studies for optimizing appropriate, effective preventive measures.
HAI ( Hospital Aquired Infections), BSI (Bloodstream Infection), ICU (Intensive Care Unit), NI ( Nosocomial Infection)