Sathya Maruthavanan1, Mukesh Shanthilal2
Radiotherapy is the standard treatment in locally advanced (IIB-IVA) and early inoperable cases. The current standard of practice with curable intent is concurrent chemoradiation in which intracavitary brachytherapy is an integral component of radiotherapy. This study aims at assessing the efficacy of HDR ICBT (High-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy) in terms local response, normal tissue reactions, and feasibility.
METHODS AND MATERIALS
A total of 20 patients of stage IIIB cancer of the uterine cervix were enrolled in the study and were planned to receive concurrent chemotherapy weekly along with EBRT (external beam radiotherapy) to a dose of 50 Gy/25 Fr. Suitability for ICBT was assessed at 40 Gy/20 Fr. 6/20 patients were suitable at 40 Gy and received HDR ICBT with a dose of 5.5 Gy to point A in 4 sessions (5.5 Gy/4 Fr). The remaining 14/20 patients completed 50 Gy and received HDR ICBT with a dose of 6 Gy to point A in 3 sessions (6 Gy/3 Fr).
A total of 66 intracavitary applications were done and only one application required dose modification due to high bladder dose, the pelvic control rate was 85% (17/20). 10% (2/20) had stable disease and 5% (1/20) had progressive disease at one year of follow up. When toxicity was considered only 15% developed grade I and grade II rectal complications. Patient compliance and acceptability was 100%. Patients were very comfortable with the short treatment time as compared with patients on LDR ICBT (low-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy) treatment interviewed during the same period.
This study proves that HDR brachytherapy is efficacious and feasible in carcinoma of cervix stage IIIB. It also proves that good dose distribution can be achieved with HDR intracavitary facility by the use of dose optimization. The short treatment time in HDR ICBT makes it possible to maintain this optimised dose distribution throughout the treatment providing a gain in the therapeutic ratio and ensuring zero radiation hazards to the medical personnel.