Sudhamani C, Ajitha BK

BACKGROUND We wanted to identify the prevalence and foetomaternal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus in antenatal patients attending IMCH, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies, irrespective of age and parity, who delivered in our institution in 2017. Cohort was identified from the parturition register and data was collected from the case records. The variables studied are age, obstetric score, BMI, HbA1c level, diagnosis, management, mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. RESULTS In total, 400 pregnant women were studied. Prevalence was found to be 16%. Multigravidae showed twice and grandmultigravidae had 5 times increased risk of developing gestational diabetes. Obese group had a significantly high prevalence of GDM. Patients with positive family history and a past history of gestational diabetes had 11 times and 6 times more risk of gestational diabetes in the index pregnancy. As per the study, a 2-h 75-g OGTT value of ≥ 140 mg/dl has 6 times more risk. An increased rate of induction of labour (63%) was observed. Incidence of C-section, macrosomia, still birth, neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and foetal anomalies were also found to be increased. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of GDM in this study is 16%. Majority of women belonged to the expected reproductive age of 25-35 years. Multigravidae showed twice and grand-multigravidae showed five times increased risk of developing GDM. Pregnancy outcome is largely determined by GDM and obesity, alone or in combination. A positive family history and a past history of GDM increase the risk of having GDM in the index pregnancy.