FNAC Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Referral Pathology Lab - An Institutional Experience

Author(s): C. Bhavani1 , P. Sravani2 , M. Neeraja3 , Shyam Prasad B.R.4

BACKGROUND Salivary gland swellings are one of the common presenting symptoms in the outpatient department. These swellings are referred to the pathology department for determining the exact nature of the lesion to reach a diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the salivary gland and diagnosis of the disease represents one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. FNAC is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of many swellings and masses, including salivary gland lesions. It is a cost-effective, safe and straightforward procedure that provides valuable information for planning appropriate management. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and cytological spectrum of FNA of salivary gland lesions done over a fixed period in Government Medical College / Government General Hospital, Anantapuramu. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology of Government Medical College / Government General Hospital, Anantapuramu, during the period January 2017 to December 2019. Patients with suspected salivary gland enlargements, who were referred for FNAC, were included in this study. FNAs of 80 patients were studied in the present study. FNAC was performed by using a 10 mL syringe with a 23 g needle. Smears were stained by using the H & E stain (Haematoxylin and Eosin). The data collected was entered into an Excel sheet and analysed. Chi-square and p-value were calculated using Open Epi software. RESULTS Cytology slides prepared were studied, interpreted, and the diagnosis made was analysed. Out of the 80 FNAC salivary gland lesions, 44 were non-neoplastic lesions, and 36 were neoplastic lesions. Of the non-neoplastic lesions, chronic sialadenitis was predominant (30), and among the neoplastic lesions, pleomorphic adenoma cases were dominant, accounting for 30 cases. In our study, the most common major salivary gland involved was the parotid gland. CONCLUSIONS FNAC of the salivary gland lesion is a simple, safe, rapid, cost-effective, convenient, harmless, well-tolerated procedure by patients, and it remains an accurate method for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesion for pathologists and physicians. Our study reflected a varied spectrum of lesions in patients referred for FNAC for the diagnosis of swellings of salivary glands.