For thousands of years, fermentation has been used to increase the shelf life and preservation of foods and has been a part of daily nutrition, with no realization of the microbial functions and health benefits of fermented foods. Nevertheless, in recent years, it has been acknowledged that fermented foods and the microorganisms contributing to the fermentation process generate various beneficial effects on human health. It is known that fermented products are antioxidant, anti - radiogenic, anti - mutagenic, anti - thrombotic and have positive effects on cardiovascular diseases, cancer, hypertension, diabetes, immune system, hypercholesterolemia, lactose intolerance, inflammation, osteoporosis, and so on. The current study investigates the production stages of fermented dairy products and explores their interaction with health. The consumption of fermented milk products is recommended because of the microbiota, which consists of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, their high protein, vitamin and mineral content and their beneficial effects on health.