Author(s): B. Vinod Kumar1, U. Syam Sunder Rao2, G. Prathima3
The brain is basically formed by the neurons and the supporting cells. Tumours arising of neurons are almost impossible because the neurons never divide. Tumours arising from the supporting cells are almost frequently seen. The tumour characteristics depend upon the cell of origin. The brain is covered by meninges and the vascular tissue supplies the essential nutrients to all these components of the brain. Unfortunately, the brain is placed in a rigid box called as neurocranium. According to Monro–Kellie principle, if any of the one component increases in a rigid box, the other components will be compensated. So in a limited space if any of the catastrophes occur i.e. space occupying lesions, then the other components will be compensated and as a result the effects will be seen in a very small amount of time. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand and evaluate the Brain Tumours using a CT scan. This study is intended to be useful to the diagnosing radiologists, internal medicine practitioners and general practitioners and surgeons.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the brain tumours using CT and to confirm the diagnosis by sending to the Histopathology Department. The study is a cross-sectional study and is done in the Department of Radiology, Fathima Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. The study was done from December 2014 to May 2016. The study was done using thirty cases who were believed to have brain tumour and were studied in the Department of Radiology after initial clinical evaluation. First, the plain CT was done and was checked for the location, size, characteristics of the lesion and the surrounding characteristics were observed.
In the present study, the most common of all tumours were those of the neuroepithelial groups. Next in frequency were the tumours of meninges of all intracranial tumours. This was followed by tumours of cranial nerves, metastatic tumour, one lymphoma case and tumour of sellar region was also seen. This was confirmed by histopathology report. The most common site was cerebrum followed by meninges, CP angle, sellar and cerebellum.
The most common site was cerebrum followed by meninges, CP angle, sellar and cerebellum. Based upon the tumour characteristics, the type of tumour can fairly be judged. The local bony changes can be appreciated in intra–axial only in later part of the disease whereas the extra–axial type shows these characteristics in the early part of the disease. The dural tail can always be appreciated in extra–axial type of lesions. The CSF clefts can be appreciated in extra–axial type of lesions. The effects on adjacent subarachnoid spaces is well appreciated in extra as well as in intra–axial lesions. The feeding vessels will give us a fair clue if angiogram is taken.