Epidemiological and Clinical Status of Neurocysticercosis in a Tertiary Healthcare Centre- A Prospective, Cross-Sectional Study

Author(s): Suvarna Shinde1 , Sangeeta Ravat2 , Ganesh Gore3 , Pravin Shelke4 , Ravindra Sonawane5 , Riyaz Shaikh6

BACKGROUND Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is most common parasitic infection of the CNS & an important cause for epileptic seizures. It is caused by the larva of the pork tapeworm, T. solium. We wanted to study the epidemiology, clinical status, distribution, magnitude, pathogenesis, of neurocysticercosis in neurology OPD of a tertiary care hospital and provide data to improve health services towards NCC patients. METHODS Patients who had attended epilepsy outpatient department (OPD) with complaints of seizure and confirmed by neurologist were included in the study (sample size 100) as per criteria. The CRFs were filled from case paper & patients were interviewed for personal history and socioeconomic status. The assessment of socioeconomic status was recorded as per Kuppuswamy Socio Economic Scales. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS Clinical presentation was studied for seizure types and other symptoms. The mean magnitude of NCC patients was found to be 11.97% in an epileptic patient population. Most patients of NCC were put on AED & some on Albendazole & steroids. CONCLUSIONS The major presenting symptom in all patients was epilepsy & raised ICT. Calcified granulomas can also be potential triggers for epilepsy. Majority of patients were on mixed diet, but those who were pure vegetarians were also exposed to NCC. Poor sanitation facility was also a major risk factor. The majority of population which was affected by NCC belonged to the lower socioeconomic class as per Kuppuswamy SES scale. Migrants from North India were more frequently affected by NCC. All patients presenting with seizures required to be treated with antiepileptic drugs & Albendazole with or without steroids.