Gayathri M. N1, Kunal Puri2, Satish M. K3, Ravikumar T4, Bharathi M5
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The cytological study of body fluids is one of the oldest applications of cytological techniques. A variety of conditions cause pleural effusion. Specific diagnosis is a major challenge and the possibility of malignant involvement should always be considered in difficult to diagnose cases. AIM: The purpose of this study is to show that a malignant diagnosis in the effusions, with or without a known primary, usually signifies advanced disease. OBJECTIVES: (1) To know the proportion of conditions causing pleural effusion, (2) To study the cytological spectrum using various techniques, (3) To assess the sensitivity of combined techniques. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were processed by conventional cytology, cytocentrifuge smears and cell block method using 10% Alcohol-formalin fixative. RESULTS: Out of 100 cases, most were exudative effusions with 15 cases of malignancy. All are secondary deposits with adenocarcinoma most common primary site was lung. One acute myeloid leukemia case presented in pleural effusion. Cell block method increased diagnostic yield by 13.3%. CONCLUSION: A combined approach of conventional smears and cell block technique helps to get an additional diagnostic yield for malignancy in pleural effusions.