Descriptive Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Women Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan


Gulshan Umbreen*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad, Chanda Jabeen

Background: Depression is a common and typical disorder, described by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feeling of guilt, disturbed sleep or appetite, feeling of tiredness and poor concentration. The most vulnerable time for depression in women is considered to be during pregnancy which ranges from 4%-20%.

Objectives: Objectives of this study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology of antenatal depression and to assess the risk factor of antenatal depression among women.

Methods: A hospital based cross sectional survey was conducted in Lady Aitchison Hospital. Data was collected by using convenience sampling technique. The survey was conducted during the month of December 2016 to March 2017. Information regarding risk factors of prenatal depression in local language or using structured questionnaire and categorized for depression as following by using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20 and applied chi square test to find out association between risk factors and depression.

Results: Data was collected from 300 pregnant women. Moderate antenatal depression found among 245 (81.6%) housewives, depression found among pregnant woman who lived with joint family were 243(81.0%), and mostly depression found among 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The unplanned vs. planned nature of the pregnancy were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety and depression.

Conclusion: All the women included in the study were found to have depression of varying degree by use of EPDS score. The risk factors identified like age, education of woman and husband, Family type, number of persons living in home, number of daughters, trimester of pregnancy, mode of delivery, fear from childbirth, Family Support found to be associated with antenatal depression.