Bichitrananda Roul1, Mamita Nayak2, Sadananda Rath3, Bijay Kumar Dutta4, Rama Krishna Sahu5, Manik Chatterjee6
It is widely accepted that the dermal ridges develop during early foetal life and are constant (stable) throughout life, unique to the individual and therefore significant as a means of identification. It is proved that dermatoglyphics is of polygenic inheritance and like many other hereditary characters show racial and social variations. An attempt has been made to create a database of the dermatoglyphic pattern among the diabetics of Southern Orissa, which may become helpful for the early prediction of the disease and thus prevents its complications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fifty male diabetic patients diagnosed as cases of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1) of age ranging from 25 to 40 years and fifty cases of normal controls of similar age group were included in this study. Similarly, fifty patients diagnosed as cases of non-insulin-dependent type of diabetes mellitus (type 2) of age more than 40 years and fifty cases of normal controls of similar age group without family history of diabetes of either type 1 or type 2 up to two previous generations were studied and analysed in this study. Fifty female diabetic patients diagnosed as IDDM cases of age ranging from 25 to 40 years and fifty cases of normal controls of similar age group and fifty female diabetic patients of type 2 variety (NIDDM) and fifty female controls of age group more than 40 years were included in this study. The finger prints and palm prints of the control and patients were taken and studied for different parameters like total ridge count, a-d distance. In type 1 diabetes, the total finger ridge count in male diabetics is more than that in the male controls of similar age group with a level of significant difference being 0.001%. The female diabetics of type 1 variety showed a higher ridge count value in comparison to type 2 male diabetics while the type 1 female diabetics and type 2 female diabetics did not have any significant difference between them in regards to TRC.
There was increase in the a-d distance measured in case of the diabetics in comparison to the controls. The male diabetics possessed a higher mean than the female diabetics when measured in the left palms. Similarly, the right palms of the male diabetics possessed a higher mean than the female diabetics. The diabetics of the type 1 variety as a whole have a higher mean than their counterpart controls. The type 1 male diabetics also possessed a higher value than the type 2 male counterparts regarding the observations obtained from their left palms. The female diabetics of the type 1 variety also possess a higher value than the female diabetics of type 2 variety regarding their right palms.
In type 2 diabetes, the male diabetics possessed a higher TRC value in comparison to the normal controls. Similarly, the female diabetics also possessed a higher TRC value with a level of significant difference being 0.001% in comparison between the male and female diabetics of type 2 variety. The female diabetics possessed a higher TRC value than their male counterparts, but not that significantly. In comparison to type 1 variety of diabetics, the non-insulin-dependent diabetics possessed a lower TRC value than their insulin-dependent counterparts.
Increase in the distance between the axial triradius ‘a’ and ‘d’ was a constant feature among the diabetics both males and females in comparison to their controls of age group more than 40 years. The left palms of female type 2 diabetics showed a lower value of a-d distance in comparison to that of the right palms of the female diabetics of type 2 variety. The type 2 diabetics especially the males possessed a lower value of a-d distance than their counterpart type 1 male diabetics irrespective of their hands.