Correlation between HbA1c and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Prasanta Kumar Nanda1 , Sabita Mohanta

BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is now a common and a global health problem in both developed and developing country due to dietary change, reduced physical activities, increase urbanisation, increasing age and unhealthy life style. Risk of diabetic retinopathy increases with increase in duration and severity of hyperglycaemia. HbA1c is the important predictor for treatment and risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. So, correlation between HbA1c and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus is depicted in our study. We wanted to study the relationship between HbA1c and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlate the severity of diabetic retinopathy with increase in levels of HbA1c. METHODS It is an observational study done in tertiary care hospital from September 2018 to August 2019. 200 patients who were referred from endocrinology department for funduscopic examination having complaints of vision loss were enrolled in the study. Age, sex, duration of diabetes, FBS, PPBS, HbA1c value, and funduscopy findings were recorded. Patients were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS 200 patients were included in the study. 115 (57.5%) were male, 85 (42.5%) were female. Male:Female ratio was 1.35:1.80 (40%), had HbA1c value >14.5; 50 (25%) patients had 12.6-14.5; 38 (19%) patients had 10.6-12.5; 22 (11%) patients had 8.6-10.5; and 10 (5%) patients had 7-8.5. CONCLUSIONS Severity of diabetic retinopathy increases in patients with higher value of HbA1c. HbA1c is the predictor of severity of diabetic retinopathy.