Usha H1, Ravindra Naik B. N2
The aim of the study is to assess and compare the oral lesions in HIV patients with and without Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) visiting the government hospitals in Bangalore city.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1200 HIV patients of whom 600 each belonged to with HAART and without HAART group at the OPD of ART Centres of Government Hospitals in Bengaluru City. Information regarding patient’s demographic profile, past medical history, oral hygiene practice and personal habits were obtained using a prepared proforma. Clinical examination was carried out using WHO 1997 proforma. The data was subjected to statistical analysis.
There was a difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis between with HAART (5.3%) and without HAART patients (22.7%) (p<0.05). The occurrence of leukoplakia between with HAART (1.8%) and without HAART patients (7.8%) (p<0.05). Among HIV patients with HAART the prevalence of oral candidiasis was high (20 (3.2%)) when CD4+ count was <200 cells/mm3 and leukoplakia was high (7 (1.2%)) in CD4+ count of 200-500 cells/mm3. Among patients without HAART, the findings of oral lesions was more when CD4+ count was <200 cells/mm3.
The study shows that oral candidiasis and leukoplakia was less among patients with HAART when compared to without HAART therapy and they experience a decrease in the number of opportunistic infections. Oral manifestations of HIV infection might serve as good markers for monitoring, not only restoration of immune function, but also HAART failure. It is important that all healthcare workers receive education and training on the importance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection.
HIV Infection, Oral Lesions, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.