Clinico-Pathological Study of Pigmented Skin Lesions

Author(s): Rajendra Prasad Jagannadham1 , Suryakala Chappa2 , Arfathunnisa Mohammad3 , Naresh Dasari4 , Santhosh Rupa Killana5 , Satyasri Karri6 , Vijaya Bharathi Indana7 , Bhagyalakshmi Atla8

BACKGROUND Pigmentary problems are one of the most frequent causes for dermatologic consultation. Skin colour is highly individual and the variations are controlled by numerous genes. Correct diagnosis of skin disorders including pigmented lesions depends on histopathologic examination of skin biopsies and clinicopathologic correlation. METHODS This is a hospital based observational study done for a period of 2 years from July 2017 to June 2019 with a sample size of 88 cases in the Department of Pathology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Specimens were formalin fixed and the tissue was adequately processed for histopathological examination. The sections were stained routinely with haematoxylin and eosin and examined under light microscopy. RESULTS Out of the 88 cases, 30 cases were inflammatory lesions which include 14 cases of classic lichen planus, 6 cases of lichen planus hypertrophicus, 9 cases of lichen planus pigmentosus and 1 case of lichenoid keratosis. 35 cases were benign lesions comprising 21 cases of benign melanocytic nevi and 14 cases of seborrheic keratosis. 23 malignant lesions include 16 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 7 cases of melanoma. Most common affected age group was 51-60 yrs. Most common site involved in malignant lesions was face (34.33%). There is slight female preponderance. Most common pigmented lesion under malignant category was basal cell carcinoma about 16 cases. 75 cases (85%) were correlated clinically. CONCLUSIONS Classic Lichen planus is the most common lesion seen under inflammatory category. The diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis is mainly based on the histopathological examination in order to differentiate from other pigmented skin lesions, hence a careful histopathological diagnosis is important.