Ather Akhtar Pasha1, Suhail Bin Ahmed2

Anaemia causes a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood resulting in tissue hypoxia. Cardiac output at rest is not usually increased in most chronic anaemia until haemoglobin levels fall below 7 g/dL, but abnormal rise in output with exercise may occur with levels as high as 10 g/dL. The increase in cardiac output has been observed to correlate well with the degree of anaemia. Other compensatory mechanisms to chronic anaemia available to the body include decreased circulation time and increased tissue oxygen uptake. The latter is facilitated by a shift to the right of the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve. Cardiomegaly may also be as a result of the increased workload on the heart from the increased viscosity of blood in anaemia patients. Anaemia in the elderly is an extremely common problem that is associated with increased mortality and poorer health-related quality of life, regardless of the underlying cause of the low haemoglobin. A study of anaemia in elderly patients found a wide variation in prevalence, ranging from 2.9% to 61% in men and 3.3% to 41% in women. Higher rates were found in hospitalised patients than in community dwellers. It is easy to overlook anaemia in the elderly, since such symptoms as fatigue, weakness, or shortness of breath may be attributed to the ageing process itself. Our objective is to show the prevalence of anaemia even in a tertiary health care centre.
One hundred patients were identified who were admitted in the Department of Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences. Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female.
The study was conducted from Jan 2014 To Jan 2015.
Patients having haemoglobin less than 10 g% in the medical wards were enrolled in the study.
Among the 100 patients, 38 were male and 62 were female. The average haemoglobin was 6.4 g%, the lowest being 2.8 g%. Peripheral blood smear showed hypochromic picture in 58, macrocytic picture in 22 and the morphology was normocytic normochromic in 20 cases.
Tuberculosis leading to anaemia was seen in 24, Internal haemorrhoids/Fissures 5, Taenia infestation in 3, Haematological Malignancies 2, GI Malignancies 3, Connective tissues disorders 3, Nutritional iron deficiency 8 and Anaemia of chronic diseases in remaining cases.
Among the 22 cases having macrocytic anaemia, 11 had vitamin B 12 deficiency, 6 had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5 had alcoholism.
Among the 20 patients having normocytic normochromic blood picture, 4 had haemolytic anaemia, 1 had aplastic anaemia and remaining were having anaemia of chronic disease mainly chronic kidney disease.
Regarding treatment, 23 patients were transfused blood. Out of total 100 patients included in the study, in-hospital mortality was 10.
Anaemia is associated with a variety of diseases. As Tuberculosis and B 12 Deficiency are among the leading causes of anaemia, hypochromic and microcytic picture was the predominant picture in peripheral blood smear. Among the patients having normocytic normochromic blood picture, majority were having chronic kidney disease which may be due to the fact that our hospital is a tertiary referral centre for chronic renal failure. In-hospital mortality due to anaemia alone is lower in tertiary care centres, but the mortality in our study is due to associated comorbid conditions like chronic renal failure and malignancy.