Bishwaranjan Mohanty1, Nihar Nalini Senapati2, Chittaranjan Kar3, Sujata Naik4, Smarak Ranjan Panda5, Bapu Nayak6, Shashi Bhusan Rout7, Prasant Kumar Sahu8
Hyponatraemia is an electrolyte disorder defined by blood sodium level < 135 mmol/L. It is a clinical emergency. It may be acute or chronic depending on duration and may be hypervolaemic, euvolaemic or hypovolaemic. In this observational study, a total of 111 patients were included. Out of them, 75% were male and 25% were female. Most patients were of 4th decade (72%). Among them, 22% in CKD stage II, 24% in stage III, 29% in stage IV and 25% were in stage V and 75% of patients presented with acute and severe hyponatraemia. Hiccup (38%) was the major symptom, followed by vomiting, dehydration, confusion. Among the modes of treatment used, 3% hypertonic saline was used in majority. Duration of treatment in acute and chronic hyponatraemia was average of 3 and 5 days respectively. Despite judicious treatment, 1 patient developed symptoms and signs of demyelination on next day of treatment. Patient was treated with Inj. methylprednisolone. Among the chronic hyponatraemia patients, 1 patient suffered from extrapontine myelinosis who recovered with supportive treatment. About 66% patients presented with hypovolaemic hyponatraemia due to exacerbating factors such as vomiting, infection, injudicious use of diuretic, dehydration of unknown cause.