Author(s): Dr. Gailin B. Sebastian
BACKGROUND We wanted to assess the clinical and angiographic characteristics associated with coronary lesion calcification as compared to non-calcified lesions in those with significant angiographic stenosis. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical, single centre study of 120 patients who were diagnosed with significant angiographic coronary artery disease during April 2018 to June 2018. Patients were divided into two groups; those with calcified lesions and those with non-calcified lesions. Calcified and non-calcified coronary lesions were compared retrospectively for any difference in clinical, investigatory and coronary angiographic data. RESULTS A total of 120 patients were included in this study. 52 patients had calcified lesions and 68 patients had non-calcified lesions. Mean age was higher in the calcified group (59 years vs. 51 years p 0.003). Multivessel disease with proximal LAD involvement and coronary ectasia were significantly more in calcified group (29% vs. 6% p 0.01 and 29% vs. 5% p 0.001 respectively). Higher lesion complexity was seen more in calcified lesions (SCAI lesion category IV 32% vs. 7% p 0.03; ACC-AHA lesion category C 46% vs. 23% p 0.04). Chronic total occlusion was more often seen in calcified group (52% vs. 23%, p 0.003). CABG was the most proposed treatment in calcified group compared to PCI in non-calcified group (40% vs. 24% p 0.04 and 47% vs 27% p 0.02 respectively). CONCLUSIONS The present study concluded that higher lesion severity, total occlusion and ectasia was more frequently seen in calcified lesions and consequently coronary artery bypass graft surgery was more frequently advised to patients with calcified lesions. Calcification in the coronary artery was more commonly seen in older patients. Other traditional risk factors were comparable between the calcified and non-calcified group.