Author(s): Priyanka Gohel1, Bhavin Prajapati2, Hiral Shah3, Kaival Kothari4, Jayshri Pethani5
Tracheobronchial secretions are produced by mucous glands and goblet cells of the tracheobronchial tree. These secretions are not only involved in the protection of the respiratory system but are also responsible for the exchange of heat and water during breathing.
Respiratory infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in ICU patients. Such patients are commonly maintained using invasive devices which itself tend to be a major reservoir for hospital-acquired infections.
Among Respiratory infections, Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI) are the most common infectious diseases affecting humans causing significant morbidity and mortality for all age groups. It is responsible for 4.4% of all hospital admissions. It also accounts for 3%–5% of deaths in adults.
LRTI are often misdiagnosed, mistreated, and underestimated due to its nonspecific presentation in community or hospital setting. Etiological agents of an LRTI vary geographically and timely.These problem is much greater in developing countries.
Critically ill patients of ICUs are at greater risk for acquiring hospital-associated infections with multidrug-resistant microorganisms. This is because of their prolonged hospital stay, immunocompromised profile, serious illness, use of invasive devices, catheters, and prolonged use of antibiotics. The frequent and unselective usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics without reporting of culture and sensitivity leads to development of these multidrug resistant superbugs in the world of microbi- ology and this creates problem for the treatment of ICUs patients.
Respiratory infections, Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (LRTI).