Auto-antibody profile in young diabetic adults

Author(s): Gayathri S1, Sajitha Krishnan2, Sumithra N. Unni3, Nithya Abraham4, Harikrishnan B5, Anu Vasudevan6


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasingly affecting young adults. Overlapping clinical features has been a great problem in diagnosing the subtype of diabetes . This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the antibody profile and C-peptide levels in young adults with diabetes and its utility in diagnosing the subtype of diabetes.



In this cross sectional study, blood samples from 53 diabetic patients between 15-40 years were collected and tested for Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase antibody (GAD), Insulinoma Antibody 2 (IA2), Islet Cell Antibody (ICA) and fasting C peptide levels. All antibodies were measured using ELISA kits and C peptide by ECLIA in Cobas 8000 auto-analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS version 20.0 software. Chi square test and Kruskal - Wallis tests were used to find the statistical significance of difference for categorical and continuous variables, respectively.



The study subjects were divided into Type 1 diabetes (28.3%), Type 2 diabetes (32.1%) and other types of diabetes (39.6%). In Type 1 diabetes the percentage of GAD, IA2 and ICA antibodies were 66.7%, 40%, 46.7% and in other types of diabetes 19%, 4.8%, 4.8%, respectively. Only ICA antibody (5.9%) was seen in Type 2 diabetes. Mean C peptide was lowest in Type 1 (0.61 ± 0.91) and highest in Type 2 diabetes (3.9 ± 2).



Auto antibody profile in different types of diagnosis was described. Auto-antibody profile and C peptide levels along with history and clinical features aids to diagnose the type of DM in the young.



Diabetes of the young, Auto antibody profile, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase antibody (GAD), Insulinoma Antibody 2 (IA2), Islet Cell Antibody (ICA)