Author(s): Kathiravan S, Prabha K, Krishnaswamy B
To study the profile of arterial blood gas in patients admitted with acute heart failure and to find out various pattern of ABG results in heart failure patients admitted in tertiary care centre.
This is a single centre, cross sectional, analytical study conducted during the period September 2021 to February 2022. 100 patients aged more than 18 years admitted in our centre for acute heart failure were included in our study. A detailed history taking, clinical examination were done. Blood sample were collected for Arterial blood gas analysis immediately at the time of admission followed by 2d echo to asses left ventricular function.
Out of 100 sample study 43 % were male and 57 % were females. The mean age of the study population is 58 years. 50 % of the patient admitted with heart failure has normal ABG. 29 % had acidosis and 21 % had alkalosis. Among 29 % of sample study population admitted with acidosis most common is metabolic acidosis which is present in 24 patients (83 %). 5 patients has respiratory acidosis (17 %). Among 21 % of patient with alkalosis 20 patient (95 %) has respiratory alkalosis and 1 patient (5 %) has metabolic alkalosis. 12 patients were expired. All expired patient has abnormal ABG. 10 patient had respiratory alkalosis and 2 had metabolic acidosis.
Heart failure patients develop different acid base disturbance due to several pathophysiologic mechanism. In half of the patient with acute decompensated heart failure ABG is normal in our study. The most common abnormality seen in our study is metabolic acidosis followed by respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis is rare ABG abnormality in patients with heart failure. All expired patient has abnormal ABG. So abnormal ABG in heart failure in particular respiratory alkalosis may indicate poor outcome as this seen in 83 percent of expired patient.