Anaesthetic Management of Pheochromocytoma with Atrial Fibrillation - A Case Report

Author(s): Anjali Chandrasekharan1 , Thasreefa Vettuvanthodi2 , Priya Jayasree3 , Suvarna Kaniyil4 , Nanda Lakshmi Anitha5

An elderly female aged 65 years weighing 69 Kgs presented to the Pre-Anaesthetic Clinic (PAC) for transurethral resection of bladder carcinoma. As part of the evaluation of bladder carcinoma, Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) abdomen done showed a left adrenal lesion. She was a known case of hypertension since the last 10 years and was on telmisartan tablets 40 mg once daily (OD) since then. She had a history of palpitations 3 years back, which when evaluated was diagnosed as atrial fibrillation. She was started on metoprolol tablets 25 mg OD and warfarin 2 mg OD. In view of her history and positive findings on CECT abdomen, it was decided in the PAC to screen her for pheochromocytoma. There was no definite history of classic triad of headache, palpitation and sweating. No history of headache, weight loss, fatigue, syncopal attacks, hypo / hyperthyroidism were reported. Physical examination showed Heart Rate (HR) of 96 beats per minute (bpm), irregular in rhythm, Respiratory Rate (RR) of 16 breaths per minute and Blood Pressures (BP) of 146 / 98 mmHg and 140 / 90 mmHg in the supine and sitting positions respectively. Biochemical test results showed 24-hour urine metanephrine 0.452 mg / l which is 1.45 mg / 24 hrs. (normally < 1 mg / 24 hrs.) and urine vanillylmandelic acid 8.1 mg / gm creatinine (2 – 7 mg / gm). Electrocardiography (ECG) showed right bundle branch block and AF (Atrial Fibrillation) with controlled ventricular rate. Echocardiography showed mild aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation and ejection fraction of 68 % with no evidence of clots / thrombus. In terms of clinical imaging, the CECT showed a well-defined lesion in the left adrenal measuring 19 x 12 mm with a relative washout of 21 % and a faint subtle hyperdense lesion in the base of left lateral wall of the urinary bladder measuring approximately 20 x 19 mm. Other blood investigations like Hb, haematocrit, urea, creatinine and blood sugars were within normal limits.