Vinod Kumar B. P1, Devi Gayathri V. K2
Knowledge and understanding of the epidemiological profile is an essential prerequisite for analysing the public health needs in the country and to enable efficient programme planning and management. Mortality is an important indicator of the magnitude of a health problem, along with that, there are several thousand injury survivors who are left with permanent disability. These nonfatal outcomes must also be measured in order to describe accurately the burden of disease due to injury. Disability is defined as an existing difficulty in performing one or more activities with respect to the subject’s age, gender and social role. The basic components of daily living are self-care, social relations and economic activity. Permanent disability such as paraplegia, quadriplegia, loss of eyesight or brain damage can deprive of an individual’s ability to do these basic needs. Disabilities force the individuals to depend on others for routine physical care and economical support.
The aims of the study-
Primary Objectives- 1) To describe the pattern of injury, mechanism of injury and disability pattern among injury victims seeking a tertiary care centre service. 2) The age and gender preponderances.
Secondary Objective- To describe the mortality contributed by RTA and mechanism of injury pattern among injury victims in a tertiary care centre.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study Design- Both prospective and retrospective study.
Study Period- Inpatient hospital study in orthopaedic ward, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, during the period; 23/09/2008 to 21/10/2009.
Total persons studied=1357; injured due to fresh trauma= 820; due to sequelae of trauma and other diseases= 537; 4.4% sustained acute soft tissue injuries and the rest were bony injuries. The mortality rate was 0.12% in the one year period. 2.1% were completely cured without any disability. 97.8% had left with some disability during the one year period. 6.8% of injured returned to their original work, 41.2% can do their routine work and 41.58% cannot do even routine work who requires some assistance for their daily life. Similar to trauma, in the non-trauma conditions, there was significant male preponderance in admissions; (p value 0.001). Along with frequency, there was significant difference in disease pattern also among males and females (p value 0.001). The fatality rate following RTA varies from 7.2% during the year 2005 to 3, 2.5 and 3.5% during 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively in a retrospective way.
The prime burden of injury victims were productive young persons. 45% of sufferers were in 31-60 yrs. age group. In the disabled group, the mean age was 39 yrs. 75% were below 48 yrs. The spectrum of injuries were fall, RTA, burns, bites of unknown animals, drowning, electrocution and hanging. 60.4% of the burden was due to fresh trauma. 1. RTA-23.65%; 2. Fall other than RTA-40.73%. The mortality rate was 0.12%, 2.1% cured and 97.8% had left with some amount of disability during the one year period, 6.8% returned to their original work, 41.2% can do their routine work, 41.58% of persons cannot do even routine work. In the disability group, the average of permanent disability was 9.7%.