Author(s): Vimal Venkatachalam1, Uma Dhanasekaran

Gallstones occur when there is an imbalance in the chemical constituents of bile that result in precipitation of one or more of the components. This disease is, however, a worldwide medical problem, even though there are geographical variations in gallstone prevalence. In most cases, they do not cause symptoms and only 10% and 20% will eventually become symptomatic within 5 years and 20 years of diagnosis. Thus, the average risk of developing symptomatic disease is low and approaches 2.0- 2.6% year in all populations of the world regardless of overall gallstone prevalence. Women during their fertile years are almost twice as likely as men to experience cholelithiasis. Treatment of gallstones depends partly on whether they are causing symptoms or not. This study was conducted at government KAPV Medical College Hospital in patients who had undergone cholecystectomy to delineate their age and sex distribution, symptomatology and to find out the fraction of patients with incidental malignancy in the gallbladder. The aim of the study is to1. Study the clinical presentation of gallstone diseases - symptomatology and acuteness of presentation. 2. Study the gender and age, distribution of patients presenting with gallstone diseases and compare with given standards. 3. Study the prevalence of concomitant CBD stones in patients with gallstone diseases. 4. Study the prevalence of gallbladder carcinoma in patients with gallstone diseases. 5. Study the surgical management of patients with gallstone diseases/CBD stone and outcome.
An analysis of patients presenting with gallstone diseases at Government KAPV Medical College Hospital between 2014-2016 was made with regard to the prevalence, age distribution, clinical presentation and the surgical management and outcome.
In our study, the male-to-female ratio is 1:1.61. The prevalence of symptomatic gallstone diseases in our study is highest in the 40-49 years age group. Acute cholecystitis occurred in the 13.5% of patients in the study. 5.8% of patients with gallstones disease presented with concomitant CBD stones.
Gallbladder stones are more prevalent in India with female preponderance. Patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis were managed by cholecystectomy and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination to look for malignant changes.