Jawgam Umbon1, Sarat Hazarika2, Mridurupam Gogoi3
Stroke is usually end result of predisposing conditions that originated years before the ictus. Creating awareness and treatment of its modifiable risk factors will reduce the incidence of stroke.
To study the risk factors and lipid profile pattern in stroke patients.
Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 50 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes who were admitted in Jorhat Medical College & Hospital, Assam over a period of 1 year (May 2015 - April 2016) included in the study, while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from the study. History of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism were taken. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan/MRI of brain were done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method.
A total of 100 patients were studied, of whom 66 were males and 34 were females. The mean age for the ischaemic group was 62±12 years and for the haemorrhagic group were 55±14 years. In this study, dyslipidaemia was present in 58 (58%) patients. Patients with high total cholesterol - 33 (18 ischaemic, 15 haemorrhagic), high LDL-cholesterol was found in 38 (22 ischaemic, 16 haemorrhagic), high triglycerides in 31 (14 ischaemic, 17 haemorrhagic) and low HDL-cholesterol in 47 (29 ischaemic, 18 haemorrhagic). Among 100 patients, 66 had hypertension, 20 had diabetes mellitus, 18 had both diabetes and hypertension, 43 were smokers, 36 consumed alcohol and >2 risk factor were found in 44.
Dyslipidaemia was found in 58% of patients and most striating features were low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides level, indicating they are independent risk factors for stroke. No significant difference in dyslipidaemia was found between haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke patients.
Preventive strategies aimed at early detection and treatment of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, public awareness about ill effects of cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol use can contribute in reduction of stroke burden.