Jiju George1, Vinod V. S2, Arun Kumar3, Ayyappan Nair4
Around three lakh accidents occur in India every year injuring upto 3,40,000 people. Injuries to the pedestrian occur as a result of acceleration process. There can be an abrasion, contusion, laceration or fracture. Injuries can be grouped as
??? Primary Impact Injuries: This is the first contact of vehicle over the victim’s body. It can be an abrasion or contusion and may bear the design of the part of vehicle which struck the victim. The part of the body involved depends upon the position of the victim or the dimension of the offending vehicle.
??? Secondary Impact Injuries: Following the primary impact the victim can be scooped up and the vehicle can impact over other parts of his body producing injuries.
??? Secondary Injuries: These occur when the victim is knocked down following impact. These injuries are as a result of the victim striking the ground or any other intervening object.
??? Crush Injuries: these are seen when the victim is run over by the vehicle. The severity depends upon the weight of the vehicle.2
In this study a sincere effort has been put to study the different types of injuries produced in a victim of road traffic accident. This study is intended to help the fellow orthopaedicians to identify quickly and act accordingly and thus prevent the consequences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
??? The present study was done in the Department of Orthopaedics, Travancore Medical College at Kollam.
??? The present study was done from March 2015 to march 2016.
??? A total of 196 cases of RTA were admitted in our hospital during the study period.
??? Gender distribution, age distribution, type of road user, time of the day when accidents occurred, part of the body injured, types of fracture and injuries sustained that followed was checked.
??? Detailed clinical history and examination was done and simultaneously noted.
Nonfatal injuries was taken up for the study.
Patients who succumbed to the injury was not reported.
In the present study one fifty two patients were male and forty four patients were female. The males accounted for seventy eight percent and females accounted for twenty two percent. Out of the total one hundred ninety six patients, eight six patients belonged to the age group of twenty to forty years which amounted to 43.87 percent which was recorded highest. Based on the type of road users the two wheeler riders amounted to seventy two admissions. Only four admissions were seen of injuries which were related to pedal cyclists. Based on the accidents according to time of the day forty one percent (81) cases occurred between 12 AM and 6 AM. This time period is the most dangerous as the drivers usually tends to fall asleep while driving. Parts of the body injured the extremities both upper and lower limb suffered maximum number. They amounted to one hundred fifty two cases.
Depending upon the type of injuries sustained on the patient’s body abrasions were seen in one thirty two cases which was the highest. The fractures which were seen the body of the victims occurred in highest frequency in the upper extremities which amounted to twenty six in number followed by thorax which amounted to twenty three in number followed by skull/face which amounted to twenty two in number followed by lower extremities which amounted to eighteen in number. The spinal fractures were seen in four cases and pelvic fractures were seen in two cases. Twenty seven cases admitted had consumed alcohol and this had strong association with the RTA.
This study shows that two wheeler riders and pedestrians amounted to maximum number of injuries suffered. Proper implementation of traffic rules and abiding those rules from the general public is the need of the hour. Driving and travelling at night should be avoided as far as possible. Age group between twenty years and forty years had the highest number of casualties because that age group people usually ventures out on purpose of work.