Author(s): Ayyappan Nair1, Anish G. Cherayan2, Vinod V. S3, Naiju Ajumuddeen4
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It is a degenerative disease where, load bearing synovial joints like hip and knee are affected. Usually bilateral, highest incidence is seen after 6th decade of life. It is also common in women post - menopausal age. Osteoarthritis of knee is more common in Asian population because of lifestyle habits like squatting and sitting cross legged. The aetiology of the disease can be multifactorial but usually it is an age associated disease due to wear and tear.
The two types of osteoarthritis are, Primary osteoarthritis: It is more common. This occurs in old age due to wear and tear of the joints and Secondary osteoarthritis: In this there is an underlying primary joint disease which leads to degeneration. Any age group can be affected. Predisposing factors are, congenital malformation of joint, trauma, disease involving joints, malalignment, internal derangement and obesity.
A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand the Osteoarthritis complications in the elderly population. This study is intended to help the practicing fellow orthopaedicians to understand and thus treat the patient more effectively.
??? The study was done in the Department of Orthopaedics, Travancore Medical College at Kollam.
??? The study was done from June 2014 to June 2016.
??? Three Hundred Twenty cases who attended in the Department of Orthopaedics were taken for the study.
??? Detailed History and Clinical Examination was conducted.
??? All the statistical analysis was done using the latest SPSS software 2015 (California).
In the present study, the mean age of the population was 62.67 years with a standard deviation of 11.739 years. Crepitus was present in eighty three cases; pain was the chief complaint and was present in two hundred and thirty eight cases. Stiffness was complained in two hundred and fourteen cases and in seventy one cases the patient complained of swelling. On Clinical Examination the symptoms that was found highest in frequency was tenderness in one ninety six cases, Limitation of joint movements in one hundred seventy three cases, crepitus in twenty five cases and gross deformation in fifteen cases.
The association of investigations showed strong significance with the positivity. Subchondral sclerosis was present in forty eight cases, narrowing of joint space on X-ray was seen in two hundred and seventeen cases, osteophyte formation/ subchondral cyst was observed in twenty five cases. Deformation of joint and loose bodies was observed in twelve cases. On treatment osteotomy was successful in forty nine cases, medical line of treatment was successful or at least stopped the progression of the disease in two hundred two cases. Arthroscopic procedure was successful in twenty cases and joint replacement in eleven cases.
The study successfully evaluates the different signs and symptoms that are commonly involved in osteoarthritis. In the present study we also were successful in showing the association of different investigations and modes of treatment in successfully treating the cases of osteoarthritis.