S. Vetrivel1, C. Ganesan2, V. P. Kannan3
Anaemia is a chronic nutritional health problem in India. Though there are plenty of causes for anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia is the most common cause of anaemia. As we all know, elevated serum lipids have a significant correlation with the risk of atherosclerosis, which in turn causes coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease, thus increasing morbidity and mortality worldwide. But, in the same way, low level of lipids in serum also cause some serious illness like depression, cancers, haemorrhagic stroke, aortic dissection and other metabolic abnormalities. Anaemia, irrespective of its cause produce decrease in serum lipid levels through various mechanisms. This study is conducted to assess the lipid profiles in various types of anaemia. The aim of the study is to study lipid profile of anaemic patients as compared with age and sex matched controls. To correlate, if type of anaemia has any effect on lipid profile and to study if severity of anaemia is associated with changes in various lipid subfractions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This is a case-control study, which has been carried out in the Department of Internal Medicine, TMCH, Thanjavur, from January 2017 to June 2017.
younger than 50 years were found to be more likely to have severe anaemia. Fatigue and pallor were the most common clinical features. Clinical features were more common among cases with severe anaemia. The mean serum total cholesterol levels were significantly lower (P0.05).
Younger cases were more likely to have more severe anaemia. There was no relation between sex and severity of anaemia. Dimorphic anaemia was the most commonly seen type of anaemia. Most cases had mild-to-moderate anaemia. The most common presenting symptom was fatigue. Patients with severe anaemia were more likely to be symptomatic. Vegetarians were more likely to have more severe anaemia. Pallor was the most common finding on general physical examination. Cases with more severe anaemia were more likely to have findings on general physical examination. The mean pulse rate was higher in cases. The mean pulse rate was higher in cases with severe anaemia. The mean blood pressure and BMI were lower in cases with severe anaemia. The most common findings on systemic examination were venous hum and flow murmurs. Features suggestive of hyperdynamic state of circulation and congestive cardiac failure were only seen in cases with severe anaemia. The mean total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and triglyceride levels along with TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. There was a larger reduction in mean total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and triglyceride levels along with TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios with increased severity of anaemia. The type of anaemia did not have a significant effect on the mean lipid levels