Shashank G. D1, Sowmya B. G2
Ultrasonography offers a valuable means of prenatal diagnosis. It can be used not only for obstetric indications such as placental localisation and the diagnosis of multiple pregnancies, but also for prenatal diagnosis of structural abnormalities not associated with known chromosomal, biochemical or molecular defects. Ultrasonography is particularly valuable because it is noninvasive and conveys no known risk to the foetus or mother. It does, however, require expensive equipment and a skilled, experienced operator. Sophisticated ultrasonography has resulted in the identification of subtle anomalies in the foetus, the significance of which is not always clear. For example, choroid plexus cysts are sometimes seen in the developing cerebral ventricles in mid-trimester. Initially, it was thought that these were invariably associated with the foetus having trisomy 18, but in fact they occur frequently in normal foetuses, although if they are very large and do not disappear spontaneously they can be indicative of a chromosome abnormality. Increased echogenicity of the foetal bowel has been reported in association with cystic fibrosis. Initial reports suggested this finding could convey a risk as high as 35%. Earlier it was thought that 10% of the foetuses will have cystic fibrosis, but it is now clear that this risk is probably no greater than 1% to 2%. Novel ultrasonographic findings of this kind are often called soft markers, and their interpretation must be approached cautiously in the effort to distinguish normal from abnormal variation. This study puts in a hardworking effort to find the incidence of presence of EIF in actual confirmed cases of Down syndrome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was done in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Subbaiah Medical College, Shimoga, Karnataka. This study was done from September 2014 to April 2016. The study was done using 30 subjects.
The mean age of the population was found to be 37.28 years and the standard deviation was found to be 1.73 years. The incidence of echogenic intracardiac focus is significantly associated with that of Down Syndrome.
EIF was found to be significantly associated and can be a powerful tool in India because it is cheap and also forms the first line of diagnosis.