Abstract

A STUDY OF HAEMATOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN HUMAN IMMUNE DEFICIENCY VIRUS POSITIVE PATIENTS BEFORE AND AFTER ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY

Author(s): Madhu Balla, Vijay Kumar

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a multisystem disease and haematological abnormalities are among the most common complications of HIV. HIV associated haematological abnormalities seem to be dependent on the level of virus replication, as these abnormalities are severe in late stage AIDS patients with high viremia. These abnormalities reflect the underlying immune status and may be prevented or corrected by use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

METHODS: One hundred HIV positive patients, symptomatic as well asymptomatic, diagnosed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method according to the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) guidelines were included. Complete haematological profile was recorded. The haematological parameters of each patient were evaluated at 0-, 6- and 12-months following initiation of HAART.

RESULTS: Out of 100 patients included in this study, 58% (58) were males and 42% (42) were females with the sex ratio of 1.38:1. The haematological profiles were presented as mean ± standard deviation. A p value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There was a significant improvement in CD4 cells, haemoglobin, red cell count and haematocrit and platelet counts after 6 months and 12 months of therapy. Improvement in total count, absolute neutrophil count and absolute lymphocyte count was observed after 12 months of HAART.

CONCLUSIONS :This study shows that there was improvement in all parameters in these patients and also in the stage of disease when they were followed for one year. So, regular follow up and compliance of patient is of utmost importance in checking the progress of disease as well as ensuring better quality of life. It can be concluded that in people living with HIV/AIDS, HAART is useful for modifying the mortality and morbidity.