Chethankumar K. L1, Anikethana G. V2, Ravikumar T. N3

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular disease is the most common life threatening neurological disease and is a concern in young patients especially in developing countries. This study aims to identify clinical profile, risk factors, aetiology, and radiological profile of patients presented with stroke between the ages of 15-45 years. METHODOLOGY: 50 patients (27 males and 23 females) were included in the study. Detailed history and clinical examination were done and neurological deficits were identified. Other than routine investigations, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile, bleeding time, clotting time, HIV, VDRL, lumbar puncture for CSF analysis, homocysteine levels, ANA, APLA, electrocardiography, echocardiogram, carotid doppler and CT/MRI Brain were done for all the patients. RESULT: The sex ratio was 1.17: 1 (M:F), the mean age was 33.12 years and that of male and female patients were 34.74 and 31.22 years respectively. Neurodeficits such as motor deficit was seen in 86% of patients. Decreased in consciousness was seen in 72% of patients. 36% of patients had speech abnormalities. The common cranial nerve involved is VIIth cranial nerve in 24% of patients. Cerebellar deficit was seen in 6% of patients. Risk factors such as smoking was seen in 36%, alcohol consumption in 22%, hypertension in 28%, diabetes mellitus in 16%, overweight in 14%, abnormal LDL in 44% and HDL in 38%, OCP in 4% were associated with stroke in young. CT/MRI brain revealed ischemia in 56%, hemorrhage in 24% and cortical venous thrombosis in 20%. Common aetiology found was cardioemboli 26% followed by hypertension in 20%, atherosclerosis in 16%, postpartum cortical venous thrombosis in 12%, homocystinemia in 8%, SLE, OCP, APLA, AV malformation in 2% and undetermined in 10%. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The major risk factors for stroke in young patients were smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Oral contraceptive pill use was associated risk factor in women. Cardioemboli was the most common cause of stroke in young. Cortical vein thrombosis was common among females.