A Prospective Study on Post-Operative Complications Following Thyroid Surgery Conducted in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Tirupati

Author(s): Sadhu Nagamuneiah1, Gandikota Venkata Prakash2, P. Sabitha3, Karthik Periyasamy4, Sanjay Raj Kumar Reddy Madduri5, U. Jagadeeshwar6

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure which is commonly performed by surgeons
worldwide, but the outcome and complication rates were mainly dependent on the
surgeon’s skill and experience, indication and the extent of surgery and the
number of thyroid surgeries performed at that particular centre. The aim of this
study was to assess the frequency of the postoperative complications after thyroid
surgery in Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruiya Government General Hospital,
A prospective study conducted on 100 patients with thyroid swelling who attended
the Sri Venkateshwara Ramnaraian Ruya Government General Hospital, Tirupati.
Patient age, sex, rural/urban origin, history, diagnosis, type of surgery, laboratory
investigation such as complete blood, serum calcium, thyroid function test, us
culture and sensitivity test in wound infections and indirect laryngoscopy for all
pre-operative patients and postoperative voice change patients. Outcomes
recorded as a complication of thyroid surgery within one week.
Totally 100 patients were enrolled in the study. Thyroid enlargement was more
common in females (F: M =5.6:1) presenting in 3rd and 4th decades mostly with
the mean age and standard deviation were 42.92 years and 13.097 years
respectively. Total thyroidectomy was the most common procedure performed (44
%) followed by hemithyroidectomy (31 %), subtotal thyroidectomies (29 %) and
near total thyroidectomy (5 %). On histopathological examination most common
finding was multinodular goiter (54 %) followed by nodular goiter (33 %) and
malignancies (10 %). The overall postoperative complication rate was 47 %. The
most common postoperative complications after thyroidectomies were seroma
formation in wound complication (27 %), followed by hypocalcemia (11 %),
recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury (3 %), and surgical site infection (2 %).
Majority of these complications were found to be associated with total
thyroidectomy, female population, and in patients with age more than 30 years.
Seroma formation in wound complication is the commonest post thyroidectomy
complication. Female gender, old age, and extensive thyroid surgery were
associated with increased complication rate.