A Cross-Sectional, Retrospective Study of Clinicopathological Profile of Oral Malignancies in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, India

Author(s): Ravichandra Matcha1 , Venkataramana Sigilipelli2 , Mythili Pigilam3 , Vidyasagar Samana4

BACKGROUND Oral malignancy is one of the commonest cancers in Asian countries. The incidence of oral cancer in India is 28 per one lakh population. The commonest site of oral cancer in India is buccal mucosa (>70%). Every year there is an incidence rate of 30 per one lakh worldwide and ten per one lakh in India. METHODS This is a hospital based, retrospective, cross sectional study, conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, from May 2017 to September 2019 on 30 cases. RESULTS Buccal mucosa is the most common site of oral malignancies (53.34%). The peak age of incidence is 30 - 55 years in this study. Male to female ratio in this study group is 2.75:1. The habit of smoking and chewing tobacco is in about 70% cases, making it the most common addiction habit among the cases in this study, followed by pan masala, betel nut chewing, and alcohol. Low socioeconomic status is commonly associated with oral cancers. The majority of cases presented as ulceroproliferative lesions (80%) in this study. CONCLUSIONS Oral cancer is a national problem. Oral cancer remains a challenge as the majority of the patients reported in advanced stages. Micrographic excision and alternate forms of therapy such as cryo, electro, chemo, and photodynamic therapy for smaller lesions and wide excision along with advanced reconstructive procedures have made surgery the anchor in management. Radiotherapy is another important modality of treatment as its side effects reduced with the invention of radio sensitizers and radio protectors. Adjuvant-chemo, concomitant-chemo, and radiotherapy are useful in advanced disease. Immunological agents such as Gefitinib and Erlotinib are in use. Effective multi-modality management has come into use with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy reducing the morbidity in oral cancers.