A Cross Sectional Study on Risk Factors, Clinical Profile and Aetiology of Acute Pyelonephritis in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Kerala


Mohammed Shafi P.K.1 , Rosh P. 2

BACKGROUND Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most severe forms of urinary tract infections (UTI) with a higher incidence among females compared to males. Escherichia coli is the commonest causative organism isolated in 80 % of the cases in Kerala. Risk factors like structural or functional abnormalities of urogenital system, immunosuppression, comorbidities and virulence & resistance of microorganism play vital roles in predicting the prognosis. Our aim was to study the prevalence of various risk factors of acute pyelonephritis in adult patients, the clinical profile, aetiological agents and their sensitivity to antibiotics, and related complications on their usage. METHODS In a cross-sectional observational study, 100 adult patients with acute pyelonephritis admitted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Kerala were studied between January 2016 and January 2017. Detailed history and clinical examination were carried out. Complete haemogram, random blood sugar, renal function test, urine culture and sensitivity, and ultrasonogram of abdomen and pelvis were done. RESULTS The most common age group was 40 - 49 years with a male to female ratio of 2:3. Dysuria was observed in 82 % of patients followed by increased frequency of micturition in 65 % and vomiting in 42 %. Diabetes mellitus was observed in 55 % of patients and recurrent UTI in 44 %. Escherichia coli was found in 66 % of patients followed by Klebsiella in 23 %. Culture showed that 85 % of the bacteria were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. 44 % of the patients did not respond to the empirical antibiotic, and the failure rate was higher among those empirically treated with ciprofloxacin. 41 % of the patients developed acute kidney injury, which necessitated haemodialysis in 23 %. 14 % of the patients developed septic shock and the mortality was 10 %. CONCLUSIONS Certain risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and indwelling catheters were associated with increased incidence of complications. Hence, in presence of such risk factors appropriate treatment and preventive measures should be initiated promptly. Among the pathogens, 85 % of the organisms were sensitive to piperacillin–tazobactam. Hence, piperacillintazobactam can be recommended as the first line empirical antibiotic.